Brazilian, born November 19th, 1937. Married, with two sons. Joined the Brazilian Foreign Service in 1961. Dealt with commodity issues (especially coffee, sugar and cocoa) for most of his professional life, having served as Chairman and Spokesman of the Producers’ Group in the International Coffee Organization from 1979 to 1985. Was President of the Brazilian Coffee Institute (IBC) and Chief Negotiator of Brazil’s External Debt from 1990 to 1991. Having retired in 1998 as Ambassador to the European Union, was CEO of Vale, one the biggest mining companies in the world, from 1999 to 2001. Works now as an independent consultant based in Rio de Janeiro and is a member of several Boards, including that of GDK and Gold Sea, besides being the Board Chairman of Ferrous Resources do Brasil. As a translator, has specialized in the works of J.D. Salinger, V. Nabokov, Ian McEwan and Philip Roth.